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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Preventive Medicine
    journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed
    Cancers attributable to infections in Canada T
    Karena D. Voleskya,b, , Mariam El-Zeina, Eduardo L. Francoa,b, Darren R. Brennerc, Christine M. Friedenreichd, Yibing Ruand, on behalf of the ComPARe Study Team1 a Gerald Bronfman Department of Oncology, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada b Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada c Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada d Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, CancerControl Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Keywords:
    Cancer
    Infection
    Population attributable risk
    Papillomavirus infections
    Helicobacter pylori
    Hepatitis viruses
    Prevention
    Canada 
    Infections are estimated to cause approximately 15% of the world's cancers with large geographic variations. Yet, Canadian estimates for specific cancer-causing infections are not available. To estimate the number of infection-associated cancers diagnosed among Canadian adults in 2015, we calculated population attributable risks (PARs) and the number of attributable cases for seven carcinogenic infections and their 20 associated cancers. A sys-tematic literature search was performed for each infection to obtain data on infection prevalence in the popu-lation and the relative risk or odds ratio associated with the cancer it causes. When mechanistic evidence suggested that detection of a given infection within cancer tissue was sufficient to attribute the cancer to the infection, prevalence among cancer cases was used to approximate the PAR. Data from 61 studies formed the basis of our analyses. The estimated number of infection-attributable cancer cases for 2015 was: 3828 for human papillomavirus (HPV), 2052 for Helicobacter pylori, 578 for Epstein-Barr virus, 509 for hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), 100 for human herpesvirus type 8, and 30 cases for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. These seven infections were responsible for 3.7% of cancers diagnosed among Canadian adults in 2015; 3.5% among men and 4.0% among women. The infections with the highest number of attributable cases are largely pre-ventable or treatable through vaccination (HBV and HPV), antibiotic therapy (H. pylori), or a combination of interventions (HCV), thereby representing an important target for reducing the infection-caused cancer burden among Canadians.